All rocks are made up of minerals, and mineral occurrences for which there is a market and commercial use qualify as mineral resources. To be extracted, a mineral resource must have a high enough quality and quantity to offset the cost of mining and processing.
The total value of Pennsylvania’s nonfuel-mineral production was $1.51 billion in 2013, placing it 15th in the nation in the USGS Minerals Yearbook.
In the production of nonfuel-mineral resources among the states, Pennsylvania ranked as follows:
The Pennsylvania Geological Survey publishes many reports pertaining to the mineral industry in its mineral resource report series. Some noteworthy ones include: